Twenty percent of non-Hispanic Caucasian and Asian women aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 52 percent are estimated to have low bone mass.
- Being female
- Older age
- Family history of osteoporosis or broken bones
- Being small and thin
- Certain race/ethnicities such as Caucasian, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino although African Americans are also at risk
- History of broken bones
- Low sex hormones
- Low estrogen levels in women, including menopause
- Missing periods (amenorrhea)
- Low levels of testosterone and estrogen in men
Low calcium intake
Low vitamin D intake
Excessive intake of protein, sodium and caffeine
- Inactive lifestyle
- Alcohol abuse
- Certain medications such as steroid medications, some anticonvulsants and others
- Certain diseases and conditions such as anorexia nervosa, asthma and others
- Loss of height (which may indicate a spinal fracture)
So what does genetic testing add to this? From the clinical side....Absolutely Nothing. The risk prediction from these above factors is much higher than the non-statistical significance genes in the New England Journal of Medicine. Nor the interesting findings in the Journal Lancet.
The Sherpa Says:
Listen, back to the basics before we hype up these SNPs in Lancet. Odds Ratios less than 2.0 are not very useful for clinical practice.....So why do they get all this hype???? Because "New Gene For X" Always makes headlines and sells papers.